Definition In the section on Synthetic Cognition in the Science of LogicHegel makes a criticism of the formal kind of reasoning based on Definitions and Axiomsan aribtrary division of the subject matter and theorems. Description is for representation, and takes in this further content that belongs to reality. Like PantheismDeism is a form of belief in God which provides a basis for materialistic criticism of Religion. Deism is particularly associated with the philosophers of the Enlightenment who prepared the way for the French Revolution — Voltaire and Rousseaumost famously, Thomas Paineand British philosophers such as Locke.
Marxism is also discussed in Economic thought, article On Socialist Thought; Marxist sociology; Socialism;and in the biography of Marx. Contemporary political and economic aspects are discussed in Communism; Communism, Economic organization of.
Also related are Planning, Economic,article on Eastern europe; Workers. For the biographies of other socialist thinkers, see under Socialism. Like other schools of socialism that arose in the early nineteenth century, Marxism was a response to the economic and social hardships accompanying the growth of Western industrial capitalism.
If in recent decades it has attracted most of its adherents in countries hardly touched by industrial capitalism, this is the result of a tortuous ideologicalhistory. The intellectual heritage from which Marxism drew its insights, attitudes, and concepts is a syn-thesis of many ideological currents of the early and middle nineteenth century.
They include the basic assumptions of the democratic faith and the slogans of the French Revolution ; indeed, Marxism asserts that this revolution was betrayed by the very class which made it and will only be fulfilled by the proletariat through socialism.
From Rousseau and the romantics it has taken a strongly ambivalent attitude toward past and present institutions, together with a strong commitment to historicism and its Hegelian form—dialectics.
Finally, this mixture is seasoned with the anthropocentrism of Feuerbach, the economic doctrines of Smith and Ricardo, and the class-war theories of Michelet and other historians of the French Revolution. As a syndrome of attitudes, Marxism might be described as a synthesis of radicalism, optimism, and a commitment to science: Doctrine Marxism is a dialectical theory of human progress.
Classes are defined by their relations to the essential means of production: Like Rousseau, Marx was profoundly interested in exploring the inequalities of men because he shared his belief that there can be no democracy as long as there are inequality and special interests.
Progress, thus, is a mixed blessing. Nor is it unilinear, for in the history of man different elements of the complicated social system continually become dysfunctional to each other. In particular, the production relations, originally in tune with a given state of the forces of production, lag behind the latter and come to retard their further development.
From a promoter of progress the ruling class turns into a useless parasite. But when the old production relations have turned into a dead shell, mankind assures the march of progress by remaking the social system in revolutionary violence, giving leadership to the class wielding the most advanced means of production.
According to the Marxist scheme of history, mankind has gone through three or four major modes of production since an initial golden age of primitive communism: Capitalism, the last form of society torn by a class struggle, represents the peak of human development so far. On the one hand, it has created and amassed unprecedented wealth, which, if used rationally, could assure the material well-being of all mankind.
Yet, by virtue of its own laws of operation, capitalism cannot utilize its means of production rationally but must match the accumulation of capital with the accumulation of misery and chaos. Again, while it has promoted constitutional government and the rights of man, the formal rights and equalities of liberal regimes are vitiated by actual inequalities and ultimate dehumanization: The resolution of these contradictions will be produced by capitalism itself.
Its own economic laws not only produce chaos and crisis but also narrow the social basis of capitalism by casting the mass of the population into the proletariat.
At a crisis point the exploited will rise in revolution, expropriate the ruling class, replace commodity production with an economy based on national planning, and abolish all class divisions in society. Development Marxist doctrine was spelled out concisely in the Communist Manifesto. This pamphlet was written shortly before the outbreak of the revolution, which Marx and Engels were confident would lead to the socialist revolution of the proletariat.
The failure of forced them to explain what had prevented this act of deliverance. In subsequent political commentaries, they emphasized complicating factors left out of the more abstract analysis of capitalism: Many ideas contained in these political writings were never fully integrated with general Marxist theory.
Another task made necessary by the failure of was to elaborate a political strategy for the proletarian movement. Here Marxism came to emphasize the differences between long-range and short-range objectives. Socialism was defined as the maximal goal, while the minimal goal was the liberation of capitalism from feudal and absolutist residues of a political, economic, or social nature.
Problems of political strategy became more important because, after inauspicious beginnings, Marxist doctrine was in time accepted as the party ideology of the European labor movement.
It tended toward reformism, had faith in constitutional democracy, and, as the first mass party of modern history, became thoroughly bureaucratized. Ulam cogently argues that Marxism at that time was no longer a suitable ideology for the European labor movement.
Hence, its adoption raises puzzling questions which cannot be pursued here. Suitable or not, the merger of the ideology with the movement was a turning point because, with it, Marxism became a formal ideology, a guide to thought and action, a holy writ and catechism.Back to issue 2.
International Socialist Review Issue 2, Fall Engels and the Origin of Women's Oppression. by Sharon Smith Sharon Smith is a regular columnist for Socialist Worker and the author of a forthcoming book on Marxism and women’s liberation, to be published by the Center for Economic Research and Social Change.
We are reproducing a slightly edited version of What is Marxism? by Rob Sewell and Alan Woods, last published in to celebrate the centenary of the death of Karl Marx. The three articles on the fundamental aspects of Marxism, Marxist Economics, Dialectical Materialism and Historical Materialism were originally published separately in the s.
CLASSICS OF MARXISM. W.E.B. Du Bois. Black Reconstruction in America – Review by KEEANGA-YAMAHTTA TAYLOR. THE CIVIL War and the Reconstruction period that followed represent one of the most heroic moments in modern history.
Marxist SociologyMarx’s contributions Marx’s influence in the nineteenth century Divergence of Marxism and sociology Marxist influence since the s Defining Marxist sociology BIBLIOGRAPHY Karl Marx  introduced into the social sciences of his day a new method of inquiry, n.
Interesting theory. I find the opposite, I am a hard core gun rights activist and most people know that about me. With that being said, I also am quite vocal against feminism, Marxism, socialism, fascism and progressivism which makes me . Any man who may care to look at history will find it obvious that nations have always been the products of their people, and not once the way around.