Religious discrimination is valuing or treating a person or group differently because of what they do or do not believe or because of their feelings towards a given religion. For instance, the indigenous Christian population of the Balkansknown as the "rayah" or the "protected flock", was discriminated against under the Ottoman Kanun—i—Rayah. The word is sometimes translated as 'cattle' rather than 'flock' or 'subjects' in order to emphasize the Christian population's inferior status to that of the Muslim rayah.
Discrimination Essay Discrimination Essay Discrimination is one of the most frequently used terms to condemn or express disproval of many types of unjust treatments viewed either from a legal or moral perspective.
Yet, it is among the most frequently misunderstood and abused judicial or moral terms in use today. This concept should be understood within both the legal and moral contexts for the guidance of law enforcement officers, instructors, and students of criminal justice, law, or ethics, as well as the general public.
Discrimination is addressed in moral arguments based on Kantian principles, the theories of justice of Aristotle and John Rawls, and also utilitarian arguments by John Stuart Mill and others. It is imperative to avoid or minimize this common but unjust practice of discrimination at both the personal and institutional levels.
Etymologically speaking, the term discrimination is derived from the late Latin ca. This implies that discrimination can be used either descriptively or prescriptively.
Using the term descriptively means using it to depict or report how one group of people might be shown to be different from others, or treated differently from others without any judgment, prejudice, or bias.
Used in any of these and similar ways, there is no injustice or violation of the equal protection clause in the U. To discriminate in the second sense involves judgment about prejudice, bias, or hatred.
It is not only subjective but also a negative attitude representing an injustice. If the court determines that such discrimination affects jury selection, a prior court trial, or treatment of inmates, as well as the recruitment, training, or promotion of police officers or prison guards, it is certainly not descriptive but prescriptive.
In others words, the court is making a moral or legal judgment implying that the action or policy represents an unfair or unjust treatment that should be condemned as illegal, irresponsible, and morally wrong.
If justice is the first virtue of every social institution, as John Rawls has observed, discrimination might well be the first vice that every just social institution forbids by law or morality.
For example, as early as B. Egyptian rulers had established judicial principles for avoiding discrimination in arbitration, law, and criminal justice.
The image is found at the entrance to the U. Supreme Court Building in Washington, D. There are several instances, such as the example of the prison inmates and summer heat used above, in which different treatment does not mean discrimination.
All else being equal, gender-specific restroom accommodations are not considered discriminatory. Treating people differently in these and similar situations do not constitute unjust treatment or a violation of the right to be treated as an equal under the equal protection clause of the Constitution.
The typical usage within the context of criminal justice is the prescriptive or normative, where people are treated differently in the absence of a moral or legal justification for doing so. Moral justifications for treating people differently include measures to ensure equal or fair opportunity for people with certain disadvantages who must function in society.
The Americans With Disabilities Act, for example, attempts to provide reasonable accommodation for the handicapped in parking, education, and employment. In the case of affirmative action for women and minorities, the rationale is that centuries of sexual discrimination sexism and racial discrimination racism have deprived these groups of access to a level playing field in areas where they must compete with white males.
Discrimination also manifests as treating people not only differently when it is not warranted but also with prejudice, disrespect, or hatred merely because of their membership in a maligned group such as a race, sex, gender, nationality, culture, or religion.
Kantian Ethics Kantian arguments against discrimination can be based on the principle of universality or the human dignity principle. In the first principle, Kant argues that you have a moral imperative or an absolute moral obligation to refrain from doing an action if the principle or maxim underlying the action cannot be universalized without conceptually encountering a contradiction or an absurdity.
In other words, as a rational person if an individual is not willing that others discriminate against that individual for selfish reasons, then the individual should refrain from discriminating against others for selfish reasons, if they are in a position to do so. One should not discriminate against others if they would not be pleased if others were to discriminate against them.
The second principle of Kantian ethics determines the rightness or wrongness of an action by asking whether it will promote or undermine human dignity or respect for all persons.
By Kantian standards black slavery represents the worst form of anti-black racism and discrimination. The reason is that the black slave was disrespected and depicted or treated as subhuman with little or no intelligence and fit only to do unskilled or menial jobs assigned and supervised by the more intelligent and morally superior white master.
Justice as Fairness Aristotle maintained that justice occurs only when equals are treated unequally and unequals are treated equally.
In other words, Aristotle is defending proportional equality—the principle that like cases should be treated alike just as unlike cases should be treated differently in proportion to the relevant differences.
As noted above, to discriminate is to treat people differently when there is no morally relevant or good reason for doing so. Since race and sex are generally or with few exceptions irrelevant to the performance of a job, treating minorities or women differently usually constitutes unequal treatment against people who should be treated alike.
Therefore such treatments are unjust or morally wrong. Utilitarianism Unlike Kantians, utilitarians determine the rightness or wrongness of an action or policy on the actual or potential consequences of the action or policy for the well-being of society as a whole.The Influence of Media on Views of Gender Julia T.
Wood Department of Communication, University of North Carolina at Chapel THEMES IN MEDIA Of the many influences on how we view men and The other image of women the media offer us is the evil.
Women constitute nearly one-half of the Indian population, but they are placed at various disadvantageous positions due to gender discrimination and bias.
In the male dominated society, women have been victims of violence and exploitation. Cultural: Ethnic discrimination, commonly known as racism, is a widely prevalent practice in every part of the world.
Multicultural nations are most commonly affected by this evil; the ethnic group comprising the majority often happens to deride and discriminate against the minority groups. Essay on evils of gender discrimination.
Essay writing mobile lab topic essay family college essay writing learning english level 2 news review article in english language text for essay yoga day (caring about others essay in tamil) essay flat or house dream violent games essay games. Discrimination Essay Discrimination is one of the most frequently used terms to condemn or express disproval of many types of unjust treatments viewed either from a legal or moral perspective.
Yet, it is among the most frequently misunderstood and abused judicial or moral terms in use today. Gender inequality is an evil that plagues the society in India even today. This is the main cause of discrimination faced by the girl child.
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