The basis for allowing corporations to assert such protections under the U. Constitution is that they are organizations of people, and the people should not be deprived of their constitutional rights when they act collectively.
Income Counties, townships, cities, and states collect some of their money from licenses and fees and state-operated businesses, but about half of state revenue comes from taxes. Two other sources of income are grants from the federal government and, in some states, lotteries.
Most states and localities levy three types of taxes: Sales taxes are the most important source of revenue for states. It is placed on various products, and customers pay the tax when they buy them.
Today 45 states have a general sales tax that applies to most goods, although food is usually excluded, and sometimes clothing is exempt. Some cities also collect sales tax. Income taxes are imposed by all but a handful of states on personal and corporate incomes. Personal income taxes are generally progressive; that is, they are graduated so that the rate goes up with the size of the income.
States generally do not allow local governments to levy income taxes, but some municipalities impose a payroll tax on people that work within their borders.
Property taxes provide the chief source of income for local governments today. Taxes are levied on land, buildings, and personal dwellings. Property must be assessed for its value, and most cities employ tax assessors for that job.
Property taxes are controversial because other types of property, such as stocks, bonds, and bank accounts, generally are not taxed.
Those who hold "real" property, then, pay a disproportionate share of the taxes. You've heard about "death and taxes" but this is a double whammy: Other taxes include inheritance and estate taxes imposed when a person dies and wills property to heirs.
Several states have severance taxes, levied on those that extract natural resources such as coal, oil, timber, and gas from the land. Almost all states place special excise taxes on gasoline, liquor, automobiles, and cigarettes. Most states get more than a quarter of their income from federal grants that usually come with restrictions as to how the money can be used.
Federal grants often go for building projects, such as roads, bridges, and dams, and for education, health care, and welfare. Inthe New Hampshire Legislature created the first legal state lottery of the 20th century. Here, the first ticket is sold to Governor John W.
In recent years more and more states have turned to lotteries to pay their expenses. Billions of dollars now come from lotteries, with states retaining about one-third of the money as proceeds. Some states designate that the money be spent on something special, such as education, the arts, or building projects.
Lotteries are controversial because some people believe that lotteries hurt lower-income people, who buy most of the tickets.Official website of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Safety advice for Merrimack Valley residents State fire officials offer safety tips .
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Apr 16, · The new laws limited the amount of money campaigns could raise and spend, restricted individual contributions to political candidates, set up a public-financing system for presidential elections, cut back on so-called independent political expenditures, and limited the amount of personal funds political candidates could spend for their campaigns.
However, Emily's List forms a critical book-end to a year (short a day) of critical change to the financing of American political campaigns.
At the other book end, days later, lies Advisory Opinion Request (AOR) (NDPAC) on which the Commissioners deadlocked, . Watch video · “There is no right more basic in our democracy than the right to participate in electing our political leaders,” Roberts wrote in the court’s main opinion.
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